1 Tojami

Current Issues In Malaysia 2012 Essay

1. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Report of the Second National Health and Morbidity Survey in 1996. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health; 1997.

2. Zulkifli SN, Low WY. Sexual practices in Malaysia: determinants of sexual intercourse among unmarried youths. J Adolesc Health. 2000;27:276–80.[PubMed]

3. Zulkifli SN, Low WY, Yusof K. Sexual activities of Malaysian adolescents. Med J Malaysia. 1995;50:4–10.[PubMed]

4. Boonstra H. Sex education: another big step forward—and a step back. The Guttmacher Policy Review. 2010;13(2):27–28.

5. Grunseit A. Impact of HIV and sexual health education on the sexual behavior of young people. UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; Geneva: 1999.

6. Kirkby D. Sexuality and sex education at home and school. Adolescent Journal of Medicine. 1999;10:195–209.[PubMed]

7. Gunaratnam S. 2010. Online http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/Teenagerapeontherise/Article from New Straits Time. com. my. Retrieved: 23rd September 2011.

8. Smith G, Kippax S, Aggleton P. HIV and sexual health education in primary and secondary schools. Monograph from National Centre in HIV Social Research; Australia: Sydney:

9. Unpublished tabulations of data from the 2006–2008 (2009). National Survey of Family Growth.

10. Martinez G, Abma J, Casey C. NCHS Data Brief. 2010. Educating teenagers about sex in the United States; p. 44. [PubMed]

11. Kaye K. The Fog Zone: How Misperceptions, Magical Thinking, and Ambivalence Put Young Adults at Risk for Unplanned Pregnancy. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy; Washington, DC: USA: 2009.

12. Guttmacher Institute. Sex and STD/HIV education: state policies in brief. Guttmacher Policy Review; USA: New York: 2011.

13. Kirkby D, Short L, Collins J, Rugg D, Kolbe L, Howard M, et al. School-based programmes to decrease sexual risk behaviours: a review of effectiveness. Public Health Report. 1994;109(3):339–360.

14. Mueller TE, Gavin LE, Kulkarni A. The association between sex education and youth’s engagement in sexual intercourse, age at first intercourse, and birth control use at first sex. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2008;42:89–96.[PubMed]

15. UNICEF. Opportunity in Crisis: Preventing HIV from early adolescence to young adulthood. UNICEF; New York: 2011.

16. United Nations. Universal declarations of human rights. United Nation Publications; New York: 1998.

17. United Nations High Commissioner. Convention on the rights of the child. United Nations Publications; New York: 2003.

18. Council of Europe. European convention on the exercise of children’s rights. European Union; Strasbourg, France: 1996.

19. International Planned Parenthood Foundation. Sexual rights: an IPPF declaration. London: Britain: 2008.

20. Department of Health Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006 - Pregnancy Prevention. Atlanta: CDC; 2007.

21. Forrest S, Strange V, Oakley A. A comparison of student evaluations of a peer-delivered sex education programme and teacher-led programme. Sex Education. 2002;2(3):195–214.

22. Meyrick, Swann . Reducing the rate of teenage conceptions: an overview of effectiveness of interventions and programmes aimed at reducing unintended conceptions in young people. London: Health Education Authority; 1998.

23. Swan C, Bowe K, McCormick G, Kosmin M. Teenage pregnancy and parenthood: A review of reviews: Evidence briefing. London: Health Development Agency; 2003.

The Problem of Adolescent Obesity in Malaysia Essay

699 Words3 Pages

Nowadays, obesity becomes a common, well-known health problem among adolescents. There was a significant rise in obesity prevalence in children and adolescent between 1999 and 2010. In 2007 to 2010, almost 17% of United State children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years old had a body mass index (BMI) higher than or equal to the 95th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts in which were classified as obese (Ogden et al., 2012). This was also happened to adolescents in Malaysia where nearly 7% of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old are obese. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys compared to girls (Rampal, 2007). This situation is concerning because obesity is an intermediate risk factor of non-communicable diseases such as…show more content…

Nowadays, obesity becomes a common, well-known health problem among adolescents. There was a significant rise in obesity prevalence in children and adolescent between 1999 and 2010. In 2007 to 2010, almost 17% of United State children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years old had a body mass index (BMI) higher than or equal to the 95th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts in which were classified as obese (Ogden et al., 2012). This was also happened to adolescents in Malaysia where nearly 7% of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old are obese. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys compared to girls (Rampal, 2007). This situation is concerning because obesity is an intermediate risk factor of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Adolescence obesity also can cause physiological disorder and premature death (Rofey et al., 2009). Furthermore, Malaysia is right now at the stage of epidemiological transition with non-communicable disease and communicable disease (World Health Organization, 2010). Step in preventing these problems should be taken without any hesitation. A number of obesity managements are introduced. However, the best obesity management is early detection and intervention so that the childhood and adolescence obesity do not affect the person health during adulthood (Gahagan, 2004). Changing lifestyle habit such as reducing calories intake and frequently active can

Show More

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *