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Traffic Congestion Causes And Effects Essay About Global Warming

While getting started can be very difficult, finishing an essay is usually quite straightforward. By the time you reach the end you will already know what the main points of the essay are, so it will be easy for you to write a summary of the essay and finish with some kind of final comment, which are the two components of a good conclusion. An example essay has been given below to help you understand both of these, and there is a checklist at the end which you can use for editing your conclusion.


In short, the concluding paragraph consists of the following two parts:


Summary

It is important, at the end of the essay, to summarise the main points. If your thesis statement is detailed enough, then your summary can just be a restatement of your thesis using different words. The summary should include all the main points of the essay, and should begin with a suitable transition signal. You should not add any new information at this point.


The following is an example of a summary for a short essay on cars (given below):


In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams.


Although this summary is only one sentence long, it contains the main (controlling) ideas from all three paragraphs in the main body. It also has a clear transition signal ('In conclusion') to show that this is the end of the essay.


Final comment

Once the essay is finished and the writer has given a summary, there should be some kind of final comment about the topic. This should be related to the ideas is in the main body. Your final comment might:


Here is an example of a final comment for the essay on cars:


If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.


This final comment offers solutions, and is related to the ideas in the main body. One of the disadvantages in the body was pollution, so the writer suggests developing 'green fuels' to help tackle this problem. The second disadvantage was traffic congestion, and the writer again suggests a solution, 'car sharing'. By giving these suggestions related to the ideas in the main body, the writer has brought the essay to a successful close.



Example essay

Below is a discussion essay which looks at the advantages and disadvantages of car ownership. This essay is used throughout the essay writing section to help you understand different aspects of essay writing. Here it focuses on the summary and final comment of the conclusion (mentioned on this page), the thesis statement and general statements of the introduction, and topic sentences and controlling ideas. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay.


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Although they were invented almost a hundred years ago, for decades cars were only owned by the rich. Since the 60s and 70s they have become increasingly affordable, and now most families in developed nations, and a growing number in developing countries, own a car.While cars have undoubted advantages, of which their convenience is the most apparent, they have significant drawbacks, most notably pollution and traffic problems.

The most striking advantage of the car is its convenience. When travelling long distance, there may be only one choice of bus or train per day, which may be at an unsuitable time. The car, however, allows people to travel at any time they wish, and to almost any destination they choose.

Despite this advantage, cars have many significant disadvantages, the most important of which is the pollution they cause. Almost all cars run either on petrol or diesel fuel, both of which are fossil fuels. Burning these fuels causes the car to emit serious pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Not only are these gases harmful for health, causing respiratory disease and other illnesses, they also contribute to global warming, an increasing problem in the modern world. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2013), transportation in the US accounts for 30% of all carbon dioxide production in that country, with 60% of these emissions coming from cars and small trucks. In short, pollution is a major drawback of cars.

A further disadvantage is the traffic problems that they cause in many cities and towns of the world. While car ownership is increasing in almost all countries of the world, especially in developing countries, the amount of available roadway in cities is not increasing at an equal pace. This can lead to traffic congestion, in particular during the morning and evening rush hour. In some cities, this congestion can be severe, and delays of several hours can be a common occurrence. Such congestion can also affect those people who travel out of cities at the weekend. Spending hours sitting in an idle car means that this form of transport can in fact be less convenient than trains or aeroplanes or other forms of public transport.

In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams. If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.


Union of Concerned Scientists (2013). Car Emissions and Global Warming.www.ucsusa.org/clean vehicles/why-clean-cars/global-warming/ (Access date: 8 August, 2013)

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Checklist

Below is a checklist for an essay conclusion. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.


ItemOK?Comment
The conclusion begins with a suitable transition signal (e.g. 'In conclusion...', 'To summarise...', 'In sum...')
The conclusion has a summary of the main ideas
The conclusion ends with a final comment (the writer's idea or a recommendation)


Next section

Find out how to improve the cohesion of your writing.




Previous section

Go back to the previous section about the main body of an essay.






London’s unhappy status as a city with some of the worst road traffic congestion in the world is now the new mayor’s to try to change. It is a problem that substantially arises from London’s lusty economic and population growth, which generate more pressure on road space, which means more and more people spending more and more time sitting in jams. This is bad for business, bad for air quality and bad for people’s tempers too. No wonder there’s so much rage on the capital’s roads these days.

The most recent Transport for London (TfL) performance report on the roads it controls, which covers the third quarter of 2015/16, records a “significant slowdown in the rate of traffic growth in London” but also “a significant deterioration in London-wide traffic speeds”, quantified as a 7.7% reduction compared with the same period of the previous year.

The report cites “rising construction activity” as a major cause of this. It gives examples: redevelopment schemes such as Lewisham Gateway and Nine Elms; the Elephant and Castle and Stockwell Cross junction transformations; road improvement schemes in Harlesden, Aldgate and Shepherd’s Bush; the installation of three of Boris Johnson’s cycle superhighways. Such endeavours lead to clogged, narrowed and blocked roads with obvious implications, as the same amount of traffic seeks to pass through a reduced amount of space.

Increases in the numbers of private hire vehicles (PHVs) and delivery vans have contributed too. TfL said in January that the number of PHV drivers has increased from 59,000 in 2009/10 to more than 95,000, that the number of PHVs circulating in the Central London congestion charge zone has increased by over 50% in the last two years, and that one in ten vehicles entering the zone is now a PHV. A study published last month found that the growing e-commerce market is also increasing gridlock, with a numbers of light goods delivery vehicles in the centre of London soaring.

In the longer term, installing dedicated cycling infrastructure may help alleviate congestion if it nurtures a significant enough “modal shift” away from private cars and taxis. Surface transport chief Leon Daniels said on Tuesday that the number of cyclists using the routes where superhighways have been installed has risen by an average of 60% compared with before they were put in, which looks like a good sign.

However, taking road space road away from other forms of road transport can, as TfL recognizes, also have some opposite effects (though these are small compared with other causes). Daniels stressed that less than 3% of central London roads, many of which are very narrow, have segregated lanes, but acknowledged: “On certain sections of the cycle superhighways, for example along the Embankment, one lane out of four has been reallocated to create segregated cycle routes”. Unless the squeezed road-users choose to travel by other means, more congestion may result. (See footnote for more on this issue).

Sadiq Khan’s election manifesto pledges better co-ordination of utility company maintenance works, a joint effort with boroughs and freight companies to reduce the number of lorries on the roads, especially at the busiest times, support for car clubs and to prioritise delivering new Thames crossings in the east of the city. But he has no plans to expand congestion charging and has promised to maintain the charge itself at its current level. He has also has promised to continue the cycle superhighway programme, including by investing in new routes, though the construction of these might not be as disruptive as under Johnson.

It’s no secret that senior TfL figures and others thought the previous mayor’s schemes were railroaded through, with avoidable unwanted consequences. TfL commissioner Mike Brown seemed to allude to this recently, when he spoke of the need for “a combination of ensuring that we continue with the programme of developing segregated cycleways, with the caveat that we need to obviously reflect, and learn from some of the experiences during the construction of what we’ve seen before and some of the impacts during construction on London’s wider road network”.

Khan has chosen his transport deputy well, which will help. As she showed in her assured confirmation hearing last week, former London Assembly member and transport committee chair Val Shawcross is an advocate of “active transport” - essentially cycling and walking - and she has a strong record of supporting London’s bus service, the bedrock of its public transport network and in serious need of tender loving care.

To her falls the subtle task of improving conditions for cyclists, pedestrians and bus passengers - desirable goals which can sometimes come into conflict with each other - as part of a larger mission to get London’s roads working more efficiently. She begins at a time when passions about how best to achieve that are running high. She will need all of her experience and skill.

Read all of Transport for London’s streets performance reports here.

Footnote: A statistic in a report by transport expert Professor David Begg on the problems caused for London buses by congestion has prompted sharp exchanges on social media. These demonstrate how intemperate and, at times, surreal opinions about London roads can be. Cycling activists have disputed the 25% figure used by Begg. The following passage refers to Boris Johnson:

He exacerbated the [congestion] problem by removing the western extension of the congestion zone and by reducing road capacity in central London by 25% on key routes through the introduction of cycle superhighways without taking action to curtail traffic in central London. Both decisions were taken against the advice of TfL.

Some of the wilder interpretations of the 25% figure drew a statement from TfL’s managing director for surface transport Leon Daniels. I’ve quoted from it above and now quote it in full:

We have not reduced the total capacity of Central London’s roads by 25%. On certain sections of the cycle superhighways, for example along Embankment, one lane out of four has been reallocated to create segregated cycle routes but this is not typical across the network. The new safer cycling routes can often mean more people getting from A to B as cycling is a very efficient use of road space.

Furthermore:

Early cycle counts show that there has been an average 60 per cent increase in cyclists using the new routes when compared to before they were built, and at its busiest cyclists make up 70 per cent of all traffic on Blackfriars Bridge on the North South Cycle Superhighway. Currently, less than three per cent of central London roads have segregated cycle lanes.

It is claimed by some that Daniels’s “one lane out of four” is not a confirmation of Begg’s 25%. Good luck, Val.

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