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Use Ibid Turabian Footnotes Bibliography

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition


This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 02:26:18

Please note that while these resources reflect the most recent updates in the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.


The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

If you are asked to use the Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). Students should also refer to A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). Both are available in most writing centers and reference libraries and in bookstores.

Introduction to Notes

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

If a work includes a bibliography, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.

In contrast to earlier editions of CMOS, if you cite the same source two or more times consecutively, CMOS recommends using shortened citations. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,” as the corresponding note. If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space. 

Introduction to Bibliographies

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.

Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. 

Common Elements

All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

Author’s Names

The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.)


Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

Publication Information

The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.


In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

For more information and specific examples, see the sections on Books and Periodicals.

Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography. For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Download printable version

You must cite the words or ideas of others that you use in your research paper in order to (1) give credit to the original source, (2) let your readers judge the accuracy and reliability of your facts, and (3) allow readers to follow your research. Use quotation marks if you use the exact words of the original source. You do not need quotation marks if you paraphrase (restate the idea in your own words), but you still need to cite the source.

Kate Turabian, former dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago, created an accessible guide for students and researchers based on The Chicago Manual of Style. The Turabian manual describes two forms of citation:

  • the Bibliography Style (15.3.1, p.138) — uses numbered notes to cite
  • the Author-Date Style (15.3.2, p.139) — uses parenthetical, in-text citations

This guide will cover the Bibliography Style. For Bibliography Style citations, place a superscript number at the ends of sentences containing borrowed information (15.3.1):

According to Fruchtman, Thomas Paine was hailed as a champion of individual liberties in England after the publication of Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense.1

Cite the source of the information in a corresponding numbered note that provides information about that source and relevant page numbers. Use a new number each time you include a new quote or paraphrase, even if you use only one or two sources. Notes are arranged in numerical order, either at the bottom of the page as footnotes or in a list at the end of your paper as endnotes. Indent the first line of the note five spaces, or the same number of spaces that you use to indent paragraphs. Notes should be single-spaced with one blank line between notes.

Use the Latin abbreviation ibid. (for ibidem, "in the same place") to cite a work already cited in the immediately preceding note. Ibid. should be capitalized but not italicized and must end with a period. If a note is for the same work, different page, place a comma after ibid. followed by the page number (16.4.2, p.161).

To format your bibliography, leave two spaces between the word "Bibliography" and the first entry. Single-space the sources in your bibliography, leaving a blank line between each entry. The first line of each entry should be aligned to the left margin; if an entry is two lines or longer, each subsequent line should be indented, using a "hanging indent" like this:

Lastname, Firstname. The Austin Community College Library Guide to Turabian Citations: How to Format with Style. Austin: ACC Guides, 2014.

One way to format hanging indents in Microsoft Word is to highlight the text, right click on it, and select "Paragraph" or open the Paragraph menu. Under the "Indents and Spacing" section, select "Special: Hanging."

Examples in this guide show the Footnote/Endnote citation first, then the Bibliography example for each citation. References to sections and page numbers in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 8th ed. are included for more details.

Note and Bibliography Examples

(Note examples appear first and are numbered.)

Type of SourceExample
Books (Section 17.1 pp.166-181)
One author
Footnote or Endnote
Shortened form for note of work already cited, preceded by a different work (16.4, p.158-160)
Footnote or Endnote
Preceding work, same page (16.4.2, p. 161)
Footnote or Endnote
Preceding work, different page
Bibliography Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Book with more than one author or editor
Footnote or Endnote
Footnote or Endnote, Shortened note form, following a note for a different work.
Bibliography Volo, Dorothy Denneen, and James M. Volo. Daily Life during the American Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
Book with four or more authors
Footnote or Endnote
Use et al. after the first author's name
List all authors' names
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, James Leloudis, Robert Korstad, Mary Murphy, Lu Ann Jones, and Christopher B. Daly. Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Book with author(s) plus editor (ed.) or translator (trans.) (, p. 167)
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America: and Two Essays on America. Translated by Gerald E. Bevan. London: Penguin, 2003.
Book with editor, translator, or compiler in place of author(, p. 167-168)
Footnote or Endnote
Use the abbreviations ed. (or eds.), trans. or comp.
Bibliography Goldstone, Jack, ed. Who's Who in Political Revolutions. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.
Chapter or other part of book
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyFoner, Eric. "Tom Paine's Republic: Radical Ideology and Social Change." In The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism, edited by Alfred F. Young, 189-228. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.
Two or more books by the same author
Footnote or Endnote

Arrange the entries alphabetically by title
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012.
After the first entry, replace the author's name with six hyphens (21.7.3, p. 303)------. "Tom Paine's Republic: Radical Ideology and Social Change." In The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism, edited by Alfred F. Young, 189-228. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book (17.1.8, p.178)
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Appleby, Joyce Oldham. Introduction to Common Sense and Other Writings, by Thomas Paine. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005.
Electronic Books (Section 17.1.10, p. 181)
  • For web-based books, include the date you accessed the book and the URL
  • For books from library e-book collections, you may give the name of the database instead of the URL
  • For ebooks available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted
  • For ebooks without page numbers, you can include a section title or a chapter or other identifier.
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyPaine, Thomas. Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, Part 1. Edited by Moncure Daniel Conway. London: G.P. Putnam, 1894. Accessed November 16, 2013. http://books.google.com/books?id=GrYBAAAAYAAJ.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Fruchtman, Jack. Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Accessed November 16, 2013. eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Adams, Ian, and R.W. Dyson. Fifty Major Political Thinkers. London: Routledge, 2003. Accessed November 3, 2013. ebrary.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Paine, Thomas. Common Sense, Rights of Man and Other Essential Writings of Thomas Paine. New York: Signet Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.
Reference Works – Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Handbooks, Almanacs, Atlases, etc. (Section 17.5.3, p. 190)
For notes, use the Latin abbreviation s.v. (for sub verbo, meaning "under the word") before the key term or definition you used (17.5.3, p.190). Notes 18 and 19 below are examples of the use of s.v.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed for well-known reference books. These are usually only cited in notes.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed for well-known reference books. These are usually only cited in notes.
Edition and volume numbers in reference works
If volumes are not individually titled (, p. 173), list the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers in the Note Form. For reference works in library subscription databases (, p. 141), list page and volume numbers if available. If the database provides a URL for the source, use the one provided instead of the URL in your browser address bar. A URL based on a DOI is best. If there is no short or direct URL, substitute the name of the database for the URL.
Footnote or Endnote
print reference work
BibliographyHolmes, Michael Allen. "Common Sense." In Milestone Documents in American History: Exploring the Primary Sources that Shaped America. Vol. 1, edited by Paul Finkelman. Dallas: Schlager Group, 2008.
Footnote or Endnote
reference work in a database
BibliographyHolmes, Michael Allen. "Common Sense." In Milestone Documents in American History: Exploring the Primary Sources that Shaped America, edited by Paul Finkelman. 4 vols. Dallas: Schlager Group, 2008. Salem History. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://history.salempress.com/doi/full/10.3735/mdah_09a.
Footnote or Endnote
database reference work with page numbers
Bibliography Hadden, Sally E. "Common Sense." In Dictionary of American History. 3rd ed. Vol. 2, edited by Stanley I. Kutler. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. Accessed November 14, 2013. Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Scholarly Journals (17.2-17.4, pp. 182-185), Magazines (17.3, pp.185-186), & Newspapers (17.4, pp. 186-187)
For articles consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, use that form rather than using the URL in your browser address bar. If you retrieved the article from a library database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL.
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyCooper, Mary H. "Social Security Reform." CQ Researcher Online 14, no. 33 (September 24, 2004): 790. Accessed November 19, 2013. https://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2004092400.
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyNash, David. "The Gain from Paine." History Today 59, no. 6 (June 2009): 12-18. Accessed December 2, 2013. Academic Search Complete.
Article in a print scholarly journal
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Walker, Thomas C. "Two Faces of Liberalism: Kant, Paine, and the Question of Intervention." International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 3 (September 2008): 449-468.
Footnote or Endnote
Print magazine article
Bibliography Brookhiser, Richard. "Tom Paine. / Collected Writings." National Review, May 15, 1995.
Footnote or Endnote
Article from a magazine in a library database
Bibliography Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Real Patriots Speak Their Minds." Time, July 8, 1991: 66. Accessed December 2, 2013. Academic Search Complete.
Footnote or Endnote
Article from a web-based magazine
Bibliography Conason, Joe. "Liberalism Is as Patriotic as Apple Pie." Salon, July 7, 1998. Accessed November 19, 2013. http://www.salon.com/news/col/cona/1998/07/07/cona/index.html.
Newspaper articles (Sections 17.4, pp. 186-7)
Omit the article—The—in the names of American newspapers, but keep the initial article for newspapers published in other countries, e.g., Le Soleil de Québec, El Mundo. Add the name of the city to the title if it is not a well-known newspaper like Wall Street Journal or Christian Science Monitor. Do not include page numbers because a newspaper may have several editions where items may appear on different pages or may even be dropped. Do include the edition you consulted. Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013. . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography, unless a "specific article ... is critical to your argument or frequently cited."
Footnote or Endnote
Newspaper article, print
Bibliography Chen, David W. "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times, March 30, 2001, regional edition.
Footnote or Endnote
Newspaper article from a library subscription database
Bibliography Chen, David W. "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times, March 30, 2001. Accessed November 6, 2013. http://search.proquest.com/docview/431684606?accountid=7013.
Footnote or Endnote
Newspaper article, published on the Web
Use "under" to identify the location of the cited material.
BibliographyMeacham, Jon. "Original Intent: Founding Fathers Books by Gordon S. Wood and Richard Brookhiser." New York Times, June 25, 2006. Accessed November 18, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/25/books/review/25meacham.html.
Websites (Section 17.7.1, p. 197)
A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("Often tactless, Paine provoked considerable controversy."). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.
Footnote or Endnote
Page with author
If there is no author, list the source under the title of the website or the name of its owner or sponsor
Kreis, Steven. "Thomas Paine, 1737-1809." The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Last revised May 30, 2013. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/paine.html.
Blog Entry or Comment (17.7.2, p. 197)
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 2, 2014....") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyPosner, Richard. "Social Mobility and Income Inequality." The Becker-Posner Blog, February 02, 2014. Accessed February 10, 2014. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2014/02/social-mobility-and-income-inequalityposner.html.
Comments posted on social networking services (17.7.3, pp. 198-199) and Discussion Groups (17.7.4, p. 199)
may be cited in running text instead of in a note and are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed. These are usually only cited in notes.
Visual and Performing Arts (Section 17.8, pp.199-205)
Cite artworks (Section 17.8.1, p.200)—paintings, sculpture, photographs, drawings, etc.—only in notes or "weave the elements into your text" unless the artwork is the object of your research. Include an access date and URL for online images.
Footnote or Endnote
Actual image
BibliographyBibliography entry is usually not needed.
Footnote or Endnote
Images in published sources
Bibliography Sharp, William. Thomas Paine (engraving), 1793. In Jack Fruchtman, Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Accessed November 16, 2013. eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Live Performances (Section 17.8.2, p. 201)
Cite live theatrical, musical, or dance performances only in notes. If the citation is focused on an individual's performance, list the performer's name before the title of the work.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Bibliography entry is usually not needed for live performances.
Movies, Television, Radio, and Similar Productions (Section, p. 202-203). Include an access date and URL for online sources.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Liberty! The American Revolution. Directed by Ellen Hovde and Muffie Meyer. KTCA-TV in association with Middlemarch Films, Inc.; Twin Cities Public Television, 1997. DVD. PBS DVD Video, 2004.
Videos and Podcasts (, p. 204)
Citations of videos and podcasts can usually be limited to notes or woven into the text, like newspaper articles. If a source is important to your paper, you may include it in your bibliography.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography "Declaring Independence: The Revolution." Films On Demand, 2006. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=17517&xtid=42997.
Footnotes or Endnotes
Bibliography Paine vs. Burke. Thom Hartmann Program. YouTube, December 10, 2013. Accessed February 10, 2014. http://youtu.be/PjE3xbbj6eI.
Sound recordings (17.8.4, pp. 204-205)
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography Heritage USA, Vol. 2, Part 1: Documents and Speeches. Read by David Kurlan. Text by Charles Edward Smith. Produced by Richard Brandon Morris. Folkways Records. Spoken word CD. 1956.
Unpublished Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings (Section 17.6.2, p. 194)
For lectures, include the author, title of speech, sponsorship, location, and date of the meeting or event.
Footnote or Endnote
BibliographyBibliography entry is usually not needed for unpublished lectures.
Unpublished interviews and Personal Communications (17.6.3, p. 194) should usually be cited in notes.
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed for interviews.
Interviews (, p. 203)
Interviews are usually only cited in notes. Treat the person interviewed as the author and identify the interviewer in the citation. Include the program and date, access date and URL if online.
Footnote or Endnote
If online, give date of access and URL
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed for interviews.
Public Documents (Section 17.9, pp. 206-215)
These vary considerably, and include congressional publications, reports and documents, bills and resolutions, hearings, statutes, presidential publications, publications of government departments and agencies, the US Constitution, treaties, legal cases, state and local government documents, Canadian and British government documents, publications of international bodies, and online public documents. It is best to consult the Turabian manual for an example that is similar to the source you are using.
Generally, include you will want to include the following:
  • Name of government (country, state, city, county, or other division)
  • Governmental body that created the document
  • Title, if any, or collection
  • Name of individual author, editor, or compiler
  • Report number or other identifying information
  • Publication data: place, publisher's name (e.g. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office), date of publication
  • Page numbers or other locators, if relevant
  • Access date and URL if the document in online

If you have a type of source not covered in the examples given, ask the librarian to show you the Turabian manual.
*Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 8th ed.
          Revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago;
          London: University of Chicago Press, 2013.
These are available at all campus libraries. Call number: LB2369 .T8 2013.

You can find a sample history paper using Turabian 8th edition on the Liberty University Writing Aids page. The sample paper includes comments and explanations.  You may want to experiment with eTurabian, an online citation maker based on Turabian 7th and 8th editions.

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Last updated: February 14, 2014-ta

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