Referent Power In Leadership Essay Topics
Power means many different things to different people. For some, power is seen as corrupt. For others, the more power they have, the more successful they feel. For even others, power is of no interest at all. The five bases of power were identified by John French and Bertram Raven in the early 1960’s through a study they had conducted on power in leadership roles. The study showed how different types of power affected one’s leadership ability and success in a leadership role.
The five bases of power are divided in two categories:
Coercive power is conveyed through fear of losing one’s job, being demoted, receiving a poor performance review, having prime projects taken away, etc. This power is gotten through threatening others. For example, the VP of Sales who threatens sales folks to meet their goals or get replaced.
Reward power is conveyed through rewarding individuals for compliance with one’s wishes. This may be done through giving bonuses, raises, a promotion, extra time off from work, etc. For example, the supervisor who provides employees comp time when they meet an objective she sets for a project.
Legitimate power comes from having a position of power in an organization, such as being the boss or a key member of a leadership team. This power comes when employees in the organization recognize the authority of the individual. For example, the CEO who determines the overall direction of the company and the resource needs of the company.
Expert power comes from one’s experiences, skills or knowledge. As we gain experience in particular areas, and become thought leaders in those areas, we begin to gather expert power that can be utilized to get others to help us meet our goals. For example, the Project Manager who is an expert at solving particularly challenging problems to ensure a project stays on track.
Referent power comes from being trusted and respected. We can gain referent power when others trust what we do and respect us for how we handle situations. For example, the Human Resource Associate who is known for ensuring employees are treated fairly and coming to the rescue of those who are not.
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As you can see, you don’t have to be in a leadership or senior level role in an organization to have some form of power. In fact, the most respect is garnered on those who have personal sources of power. There is more respect for these individuals than for those who have power simply because they are the boss in the business. It has been shown that when employees in an organization associate the leadership’s power with expert or referent power, they are more engaged, more devoted to the organization and their role within it. Employees are also more willing to go the extra mile to reach organizational goals.
What is your source of power? And are you using the “right source” or simply throwing your weight around? How effectively do you use your source of power to meet key goals and objectives? Please share your thoughts with others in the comments share bar to the left. Thank you!
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Posted in People Management | Tagged Leadership, power
"Power tends to get to people's heads," psychologist Nicole Lipkin tells Business Insider. "We're not really trained to handle power well."
Lipkin discusses the different types of power in her new book, "What Keeps Leaders Up At Night." Her analysis uses the five types of power introduced by psychologists John French and Bertram Raven in 1959, along with two types that were introduced later.
Legitimate Power is where a person in a higher position has control over people in a lower position in an organization.
"If you have this power, it's essential that you understand that this power was given to you (and can be taken away), so don't abuse it." Lipkin says. "If Diane rises to the position of CEO and her employees believe she deserves this position, they will respond favorably when she exercises her legitimate power. On the other hand, if Diane rises to the position of CEO, but people don't believe that she deserves this power, it will be a bad move for the company as a whole."
Coercive Power is where a person leads threats and force. It is unlikely to win respect and loyalty from employees for long.
"There is not a time of day when you should use it," Lipkin tells us. "Ultimately, you can't build credibility with coercive influence — you can think of it like bullying in the workplace."
Expert Power is the perception that one possesses superior skills or knowledge.
"If Diane holds an MBA and a PhD in statistical analysis, her colleagues and reports are more inclined to accede to her expertise," Lipkin says.
In order to keep their status and influence, however, experts need to continue learning and improving.
Informational Power is where a person possesses needed or wanted information. This is a short-term power that doesn't necessarily influence or build credibility.
For example, a project manager may have all the information for a specific project, and that will give her "informational power." But it's hard for a person to keep this power for long, and eventually this information will be released. This should not be a long-term strategy.
Reward Power is where a person motivates others by offering raises, promotions, and awards.
"When you start talking financial livelihood, power takes on a whole new meaning," Lipkin says. For example, "both Diane and Bob hold a certain amount of reward power if they administer performance reviews that determine raises and bonuses for their people."
Connection Power is where a person attains influence by gaining favor or simply acquaintance with a powerful person. This power is all about networking.
"If I have a connection with someone that you want to get to, that's going to give me power. That's politics in a way," Lipkin says. "People employing this power build important coalitions with others ... Diane's natural ability to forge such connections with individuals and assemble them into coalitions gives her strong connection power."
Referent Power is the ability to convey a sense of personal acceptance or approval. It is held by people with charisma, integrity, and other positive qualities. It is the most valuable type of power.
"People with high referent power can highly influence anyone who admires and respects them," Lipkin says.
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